Historic Preservation
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The Los Alamos area, sprawled over several north central New Mexico mesas in a region known as the Pajarito Plateau, is historically characterized by remoteness. Many undisturbed prehistoric Pueblo Indian ruins still dot the region. After the arrival of Europeans in the mid 1700s, the Plateau slumbered for some 150 years as a secluded grazing and timbering area. The few homesteads and ranches that arrived in the late 1800s and early 1900s were mostly seasonal.

In 1917, an elite preparatory school for boys took over the year-around Los Alamos Ranch, which occupied a large, central portion of the Plateau. The Los Alamos Ranch School operated until 1943, when outside events forced it, along with a number of homesteads, to vacate the premises. The Jemez’ isolation and beauty had attracted the attention of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, who was seeking a secluded site for a top-secret World War II military program, the Manhattan Project; he had visited the school on horseback during his youth.

The Manhattan Project dramatically transformed the Los Alamos area into a bustling scientific and military complex with several outreach sites, much of it fenced and all of it guarded by U.S. Army patrols on horseback or in jeeps. Staffed by many of the world’s top scientists, the Los Alamos weapons laboratory designed, built, and tested at White Sands, New Mexico, the world’s first atomic bomb. The U.S. dropped two atomic bombs on Japan in August 1945 to end World War II. Ramifications were immediate, immense, and worldwide.

After the war, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission assumed responsibility for the Laboratory. It also mandated a closed, civilian town built by government contractors. Los Alamos became a county in 1949 but remained closed until 1957. White Rock, initially opened in 1949 to house Laboratory construction workers and intended to be temporary, was reborn in the early 1960s for permanent homes. The Los Alamos National Laboratory continues to design and provide oversight for the nation’s nuclear weapons stockpile and nonproliferation activity. Basic medical, energy, and technical research have considerably expanded the Laboratory’s initial focus.

Clearly, the development of Los Alamos did not follow a familiar American West scenario. Nor is the County similar to other communities within northern New Mexico. The cultural and technical ramifications of its unique events and personalities have had profound worldwide significance. Preserving the community’s physical history is important not only to the people of the County, but to those of the state, nation, and world.

Overseeing historic and cultural resources is a cooperative effort incorporating overlapping spheres of official influence. The National Historic Preservation Act serves as an overall guide to local levels of preservation activity and the New Mexico Cultural Properties Act sets state standards of preservation policy. The State Historic Preservation Division is the liaison between communities and national policy makers. The Fuller Lodge/Historic Districts Advisory Board, the Los Alamos Historical Society, and other groups – including but not limited to local enterprises, volunteer organizations, Los Alamos County, and Los Alamos National Laboratory – contribute to local historic preservation.

Related Historic and Cultural Links

Manhattan Project National Historical Park
Established in November 2015, the park preserves portions of the World War II-era sites where the United States developed the world's first atomic weapons.

Los Alamos Historical Society
The Los Alamos Historical Society preserves, promotes, and communicates the remarkable history and inspiring stories of Los Alamos and its people for our community, for the global audience, and for future generations.

Fuller Lodge Historic Districts Advisory Board
The purpose of the Fuller Lodge Historic District Advisory Board is to make recommendations to the Planning & Zoning Commission, Board of Adjustment, and County Council regarding the protection, preservation, and enhancement of places, sites, areas, buildings, structures and other objects within the corporate boundaries of the County having a special character or historic, architectural, or cultural interest or value, and to initiate and conduct research and investigations relating to them.

Bradbury Science Museum
Provides a window into the history of Los Alamos National Laboratory, its national security mission, and the broad range of exciting science and technology research programs undertaken to improve our nation's future.

Bandelier National Monument
Bandelier National Monument protects over 33,000 acres of rugged but beautiful canyon and mesa country as well as evidence of a human presence here going back over 11,000 years. Petroglyphs, dwellings carved into the soft rock cliffs, and standing masonry walls pay tribute to the early days of a culture that still survives in the surrounding communities.

Atomic Heritage Foundation
Dedicated to supporting the Manhattan Project National Historical Park and capturing the memories of the people who harnessed the energy of the atom.

Documents Related to Los Alamos Historical Preservation

Application for Designation of Historic District or Landmark.

2014 Fuller Lodge Architectural Survey

An updated and revised survey to augment the data of the April 2008 Architectural Survey of Fuller Lodge Historic District.

2008 Architectural Survey of the Fuller Lodge District

An Architectural Survey of the Fuller Lodge Historic District buildings to provide the architectural expertise necessary for developing a Historic Preservation Ordinance.

Historic Preservation Plan

A prioritized list of significant historic and archaeological resources, including (but not limited to) artifacts, structures, trails, neighborhoods, natural features, petroglyphs, cultural landscapes, and sites of historic interest.

The History of the Rose Garden

The Los Alamos Memorial Rose Garden is the oldest public garden in Los Alamos and the oldest public rose garden in New Mexico.

Los Alamos Garden Club's Presentation

The Los Alamos Garden Club made a presentation to the Historical Preservation Advisory Board on how to preserve the rose bushes in the garden from predation by the local deer.

Fuller Lodge Interpretive Plan

The most iconic and historic building in Los Alamos, New Mexico, is the Edward P. Fuller Lodge, designed by John Gaw Meem and built in 1928.  over the years, the Lodge has been the center of the community of Los Alamos. This report is the beginning of an interpretation of what the Lodge means to Los Alamos without making it into a museum with "books on the wall."  

Inventory of Federal and State Designated Historic Properties in Los Alamos 

Sites in Los Alamos that have been designated historically significant on the Federal and State level.